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Lignocellulose Degrading Enzymes from Fungi and Their Industrial Applications
Juan Antonio Menedez Liter. Pablo Aza Toca. This can be done by using techniques such as activation of stress response genes, modification of membrane proteins and heat shock proteins, or heterologous expression of efflux pumps. This advancement in genetic engineering will lead us to treat lignocellulose biomass biologically to produce biofuel on an industrial scale in the near future. The structural configuration of lignocellulose biomass creates a reluctant nature for hydrolysis, especially for enzymatic and microbial hydrolysis.
Intensive research works have been done to convert lignocellulose biomass into biofuel specifically to bioethanol using different approaches.
Fungi and Lignocellulosic Biomass | Biorenewable Resources | Agriculture | Subjects | Wiley
The productions of inhibitory compounds such as furfural and furfural derivative compounds and hemicellulose solubilization are the main challenges for all pretreatment technologies except for biological pretreatment. The problems of low yield, low productivity, and long residence time for microbial delignification and hydrolysis are the main challenge for scale up industrial scale production. Therefore, isolation and identification of appropriate microorganisms, proper selection of raw materials biomass , and optimization of process parameters temperature, pH, aeration, particle size, time substrate concentration, and inoculum concentration are compulsory for efficient utilization and conversion of the abundantly available resources.
This shows the possibility of microbial ability for the delignification of lignocellulose biomass, and it needs further investigation and isolation of microorganisms from different sources. This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Data sharing not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analyzed during the current study. BT initiated the idea and drafted the manuscript. CB participated in the design and coordination as well as refined and edited the manuscript. PR participated in design and coordination as well as refined and edited the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. Microbial delignification and hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass to enhance biofuel production: an overview and future prospect.
Open Access. First Online: 28 March Background The depletion of fossil fuel and its huge environmental problem are currently a concern for a scientific community in the area of energy engineering. Results Currently, different types of lignocellulose biomass pretreatment technologies are available. Conclusion Searching for the best microbial strains having efficient lignin-degrading and polysaccharide-hydrolyzing capabilities is vital to realize industrial-scale biofuel production from lignocellulose biomass.
Lignocellulose biomass contains lignin and polysaccharides such as cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, ash, minerals, and salts. They are composed of monomers of five different sugars i. The structure of lignin varies depending upon biomass type and species Kulasinski et al.
Perennial grasses, agricultural by-products, agro-industrial by-products, wood, and vegetable residues are categorized as lignocellulosic feedstock. They are rich in hemicellulose and cellulose, which are ideal raw materials for the production of biofuel.
However, these polysaccharides are wrapped in a lignin matrix, which prohibits microorganisms to access it. This is a major barrier for hydrolysis and fermentation of lignocellulose biomass. Table 1 Chemical compositions of various lignocellulose biomass percentage in dry weight basis. Compared to other pretreatment methods, biological pretreatments are an eco-friendly, cheap, and efficient alternative method. Lignocellulose biomass conversion to biofuel has done by employing different microbial strains and combinations of enzymes.
Many scholars reported that various species of bacteria and fungi have the capabilities to degrade lignocellulose biomass. Fungi are known by degrading lignin components of lignocellulose biomass through the production of enzymes such as laccase and peroxidases. The overall scheme of biological conversion of lignocellulose biomass to biofuel is given in Fig.
Table 2 Comparison of biological pretreatment with other pretreatment methods. Open image in new window. Lignin-degrading fungi Filamentous fungi are one of the most known types of lignin-degrading fungal species. They are ubiquitously available in lignocellulosic waste material and in soil and plants.
Numerous studies identified that white- and brown-rot fungi are effective in degrading lignocellulose biomass such as Bermuda grass, wood chips, wheat straw, and softwoods Alexandropoulou et al. White-rot fungi have the capability to degrade hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin whereas brown-rot fungi are limited to hemicellulose and cellulose without affecting lignin.
- The bioeconomy: Fungal biotechnology and wood lignocellulosic biomass!
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- Biotechnology for Lignocellulosic Biomass | Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas - CIB.
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They are known as the major degrader of forest wood in the ecosystem. Table 3 Fungi degradation of lignin on different feedstock. MG White-rot fungus Oak wood White-rot fungus Bamboo culms 9—24 28 Suhara et al. Lignin-degrading bacteria Streptomycetes , a group of bacterial genius which compromises over species, is one of the most important lignolytic microorganism playing a crucial role in nutrient recycling and plant biomass degradation in the terrestrial ecosystem.
Many bacteria species Actinomycetes , Nocardia , Streptomyces , Eubacteria are identified by their role in modifying, solubilizing, and degrading lignin structures to some extents. About 3. It has been observed that Pseudomonas spp. Some bacterial strains show good capabilities of delignification on selected lignocellulose biomass, and further researches are required to test their abilities of delignification on different lignocellulose biomass for biological pretreatment.
Even though many research showed bacterial abilities of lignin degradation, their efficiencies are not satisfactory and need improvement. Much research works are required to identify and isolate the best bacterial strains from various sources on different lignocellulose biomass. Bacteria have great potential and advantage over fungi in the biotreatment of lignocellulose biomass because of their faster growth rate.
Table 4 Bacteria degradation of lignin on different feedstock. Water, plant seeds Gram negative Kraft lignin 39 52 Shi et al. Water, plant seeds Gram negative Poplar wood 40—52 30 Dionisi et al. Plants Gram negative Poplar wood 39—48 30 Odier et al. Water, plant seeds Gram negative Kraft lignin 20 40—60 Shi et al. Because of the complex structure of lignin, the delignification process takes place on the outer side of the cell and the enzyme lignin peroxidases are found in the peripheral region.
Two sites of substrate interactions have been observed on LiP: the classical heme edge and glutamine site that plays a major role in lignin-derived compound hydrolysis. Lignin peroxidases depolymerize lignin through H 2 O 2 using a series of steps Renganathan et al.
The lignin degradation pathways of lignin peroxidase enzyme are shown in Fig. Manganese peroxidases are primarily extracted from P.
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The production of manganese peroxidases depends on i microbial strain and species, ii carbon sources and type, and iii aromatic compound presence Elisashvili and Kachlishvili Manganese peroxidases degrade lignin in a similar series of cycles as lignin peroxidases Tuor et al. Analysis of crystal structure and the active site of manganese peroxidase enzyme from P.
Laccase catalyzes the oxidation of non-phenolic and phenolic compounds to their equivalent active free radicals in a reaction facilitated by four copper atoms positioned at the catalytic core.
Losses of one molecule of oxygen to two molecules of water and generation of four free radicals were observed when laccase oxidizes phenolic substrates Arora and Sharma The Cu atoms are organized into three diverse groups: blue Cu center or type 1, normal Cu center or type 2, and coupled binuclear Cu center or type 3. Lignin degradation is performed in a three-stage reaction pathway: i copper is reduced by lignin oxidation, ii electron is moved from a reduced Cu atom in step one to the two groups of Cu atom, and iii oxygen is reduced to water at the centers of type 3 and type 2 Cu Riva et al.
The toxic effect of intermediate compounds to the cell can be eluded in case of laccase oxidation since the early stage of delignification process uses oxygen instead of H 2 O 2 Sterjiades et al. The mechanism of laccase-catalyzed reactions is shown in Fig. Fermentation Fermentation is a very important phase for biofuel bioethanol production. Moisture content and substrate concentration In biological pretreatments, high substrate concentration should be used for the economically viable process but it leads to the increased accumulation of inhibitory compound, which adversely affects reducing sugar yields.
Nature and type of lignocellulosic biomass The complex structure of lignocellulose biomass is formed by hydrogen and covalent bond interactions between hemicellulose and cellulose in which both are linked to lignin. Culturing temperature It is important to optimize and maintain the optimum culture temperature for each type of microorganism involved in lignocellulosic degradation since it affects the growth and enzyme secretion ability of the microorganisms.
Culturing time and types of microbial strains The pretreatment time required for the depolymerization of lignocellulose biomass depends on the types of microbial strains used. Aeration The activity of lignolytic enzymes and its production is highly affected by aeration during biological pretreatment.
Acknowledgments Not applicable. Funding This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Availability of data and materials Data sharing not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analyzed during the current study. Ethics approval and consent to participate Not applicable. Consent for publication All the participant researchers are consent for publication. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Adebayo EA Oyster mushrooms Pleurotus are useful for utilizing lignocellulosic biomass.
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