Crow called it "the most important science article ever written in a front-line trench". In his essay On Being the Right Size he outlines Haldane's principle , which states that the size very often defines what bodily equipment an animal must have: "Insects, being so small, do not have oxygen-carrying bloodstreams. What little oxygen their cells require can be absorbed by simple diffusion of air through their bodies. But being larger means an animal must have complicated oxygen pumping and distributing systems to reach all the cells.
Haldane introduced the modern concept of abiogenesis in an eight-page article titled The origin of life, in the Rationalist Annual in ,  describing the primitive ocean as a "vast chemical laboratory" containing a mixture of inorganic compounds — like a "hot dilute soup" in which organic compounds could have formed.
Under the solar energy the anoxic atmosphere containing carbon dioxide , ammonia and water vapour gave rise to a variety of organic compounds, "living or half-living things". The first molecules reacted with one another to produce more complex compounds, and ultimately the cellular components. At some point a kind of "oily film" was produced that enclosed self-replicating nucleic acids, thereby becoming the first cell.
Bernal named the hypothesis biopoiesis or biopoesis , the process of living matter spontaneously evolving from self-replicating but lifeless molecules. Haldane further hypothesised that viruses were the intermediate entities between the prebiotic soup and the first cells.
The life and work of J.B.S. Haldane
He asserted that prebiotic life would have been "in the virus stage for many millions of years before a suitable assemblage of elementary units was brought together in the first cell. The gained some empirical support in with the classic Miller—Urey experiment. Since then, the primordial soup theory Oparin—Haldane hypothesis has become prevalent in the study of abiogenesis.
In , Haldane proposed that genetic disorders in humans living in malaria -endemic regions provided a phenotype with immunity to blood-borne haemophiles.
J.B.S: The life and Work of J.B.S Haldane - Ronald Clark - Google книги
He noted that mutations expressed in red blood cells, such as sickle-cell anemia and various thalassemias , were prevalent only in tropical regions where malaria has been endemic. He further observed that these were favourable traits for natural selection which protected individuals from receiving malarial infection. Allison in He was one of the three major figures to develop the mathematical theory of population genetics , along with Ronald Fisher and Sewall Wright. He thus played an important role in the modern evolutionary synthesis of the early 20th century.
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He re-established natural selection as the central mechanism of evolution by explaining it as a mathematical consequence of Mendelian inheritance. Haldane's book, The Causes of Evolution , summarised these results, especially in its extensive appendix. A pragmatic dialectical-materialist Marxist , he wrote many articles for the Daily Worker. In On Being the Right Size , he wrote: "while nationalization of certain industries is an obvious possibility in the largest of states, I find it no easier to picture a completely socialized British Empire or United States than an elephant turning somersaults or a hippopotamus jumping a hedge.
In , he proclaimed enthusiastically that "I think that Marxism is true.
He was pressed to speak out about the rise of Lysenkoism and the persecution of geneticists in the Soviet Union as anti-Darwinist and the political suppression of genetics as incompatible with dialectical materialism. He shifted his polemic focus to the United Kingdom, criticizing the dependence of scientific research on financial patronage. In he wrote about the Soviet trial of his friend and fellow geneticist Nikolai Vavilov :. The controversy among Soviet geneticists has been largely one between the academic scientist, represented by Vavilov and interested primarily in the collection of facts, and the man who wants results, represented by Lysenko.
It has been conducted not with venom, but in a friendly spirit. Lysenko said in the October discussions of : 'The important thing is not to dispute; let us work in a friendly manner on a plan elaborated scientifically. Let us take up definite problems, receive assignments from the People's Commissariat of Agriculture of the USSR and fulfil them scientifically. Soviet genetics, as a whole, is a successful attempt at synthesis of these two contrasted points of view. By the end of the Second World War Haldane had become an explicit critic of the regime.
He left the party in , shortly after considering standing for Parliament as a Communist Party candidate.
He continued to admire Joseph Stalin , describing him in as "a very great man who did a very good job". Haldane was the first to have thought of the genetic basis for human cloning , and the eventual artificial breeding of superior individuals. For this he introduced the terms "clone" and "cloning",  modifying the earlier "clon" which had been used in agriculture since the early 20th century from Greek klon , twig. He said: . It is extremely hopeful that some human cell lines can be grown on a medium of precisely known chemical composition. Perhaps the first step will be the production of a clone from a single fertilized egg, as in Brave New World On the general principle that men will make all possible mistakes before choosing the right path, we shall no doubt clone the wrong people [like Hitler] Assuming that cloning is possible, I expect that most clones would be made from people aged at least fifty, except for athletes and dancers, who would be cloned younger.
They would be made from people who were held to have excelled in a socially acceptable accomplishment.
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His essay Daedalus; or, Science and the Future introduced the term ectogenesis for the concept of what is later known as in vitro fertilisation test tube babies. He envisioned ectogenesis as a tool for creating better individuals eugenics. His book, A. Air Raid Precautions combined his physiological research into the effects of stress upon the human body with his experience of air raids during the Spanish Civil War to provide a scientific account of the likely effects of the air raids that Britain was to endure during the Second World War.
Richards , and H. Wells , Haldane was accused by C. Lewis of scientism. Haldane criticised Lewis and his Ransom Trilogy for the "complete mischaracterisation of science, and his disparagement of the human race". In , in a talk given in Cambridge titled "Science and the Future", Haldane, foreseeing the exhaustion of coal for power generation in Britain, proposed a network of hydrogen -generating windmills. This is the first proposal of the hydrogen-based renewable energy economy. In his An Autobiography in Brief , published shortly before his death in India, Haldane named four close associates as showing promise to become illustrious scientists: T.
Haldane was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in In , he received the Darwin Medal from the Royal Society. Haldane was parodied as "the biologist too absorbed in his experiments to notice his friends bedding his wife" by his friend Aldous Huxley in the novel Antic Hay From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
British geneticist and evolutionary biologist. Oxford , England. Bhubaneswar , India. United Kingdom United States India. Charlotte Franken m. Helen Spurway m. Darwin—Wallace Medal Darwin Medal Biology Biostatistics.
JBS: The Life and Work of J.B.S. Haldane
Further information: Prebiotic soup. Further information: Modern synthesis 20th century. Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. Journal of Genetics. A to Z of Biologists. Archived from the original on 7 March In John Burdon Sanderson Haldane ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 8 March Haldane — : centennial appreciation of a polymath". American Journal of Human Genetics.
Cambridge, Mass. Journal of the History of Biology. Archived from the original on 27 July Retrieved 12 July Haldane: A Legacy in Several Worlds". Archived from the original on 22 February Haldane — ". Oxfordshire Blue Plaques Board. Retrieved 17 February The Journal of Physiology.