The author system, but we need more evidence to be sure. Thats quickly announces the Topic, the late heavy bombard- E. However, the Scope the cause and extent of the A is a nice summary of paragraph 1, but we are look- LHB is not clear until paragraph 2, and the authors ing for an answer choice that justifies everything in the Purpose to discuss and evaluate 3 theories about the passage, not just part of the passage.
LHB and Main Idea new evidence supports the theory B distorts the authors pointaccording to the that the LHB extended throughout the inner solar sys- author, additional evidence is needed to determine the tem, but additional evidence is needed dont become exact nature of the LHB, but the author never express- clear until we are much farther into the passage. Paragraph 1 introduces the debate centering on the The author never discusses the rate at which evidence LHB, identifies the LHB as the cause of the major relating to the LBH is being found, so C is outside the craters found on the moonMoon, and notes that in addi- scope of the passage.
In lines , the author notes that the sizes of LHB craters suggest they were formed by large bodies, so Paragraph 2 expands on the nature of the debate, D is a B Inference Authors Attitude Moon rock, and for the size and distribution of craters Watch for keywords that signal the authors attitude. Some astronomers believe that the LHB In paragraph 3, the author describes new evidence that resulted from the disintegration of a large body such as suggests that the effects of the LHB went beyond the a comet or asteroid that spread debris throughout the Earth-Moon system.
The keyword however tells us inner solar system. Other astronomers claim that a cat- that the author does not believe that this new evidence aclysmic event is not necessary to explain the LHB evi- settles the debate that is central to this passage. The dence, but rather, the LHB describes the end of billions author would like to see many more rocks like the Mars of years of continuous, declining bombardment rock described at the beginning of the paragraph.
B throughout the inner solar system. A third group of sci- captures the authors concern that much more evi- entists contends that the LHB was a cataclysmic event, dence is needed to come to any definitive conclusions. A vertical scan of the verbs used in the other answer Paragraph 3 describes new evidence a rock from Mars choices shows how those choices miss the mark: the that was found on Earth that suggests that the LHB author is not ambivalent about the evidence, as A affected the inner solar system and not just the Earth- says, nor is she skeptical as in C.
The paragraph Moon system. However, many more such rocks must provides the details that D proposes the author is be located on planets throughout the inner solar sys- still curious about, and E s suggestion that the tem in order to determine the extent of the LHB. All of these answer choices are s.
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Should have affected Earth as well as Moon. D Logic Function 2: 3 theories re: cause and extent of LHB If a prediction for the correct answer does not come 3: New ev rock from Mars found on Earth readily, head straight for the answer choices. The authors reason for noting that the LHB should Need more ev to confirm.
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The detail is consistent with all three D , and none of the theories attempts to quantify the theories about the LHB, so we can rule out A. The author never suggests that there is an unexpected or significant lack of LHB evidence on Earth, and at the B Detail end of the passage, the author discusses an important Use the clues in the question stem to guide your piece of evidence that was found on Earth. Rule out research so that you can predict the answer to a B. Detail question.
The author never advocates any scientific model for the The question directs us to the third group of scientists, origins of life on Earth. C is therefore another wrong and even gives us a line reference. Those scientists answer choice. Sounds a lot like correct answer choice authors statement at the end of paragraph 1, that life B.
According to the third group had ended would provide a compelling reason for of scientists, both the Earth and Moon were affected studying the LHB. So D is a keeper. Consideration of E confirms that D is correctthe C goes beyond the scope of the passageas we saw author never draws or suggests a connection between in question 11, none of the scientists attempted to the supposed effect LBH had on Earth with the dating estimate the amount of debris involved in the LHB. D The author never suggests that there is a dispute between any of the scientists regarding the dating of When you are asked to identify a point of agreement E is another half right, half wrong answer.
The scien- or point at issue between different theories, first tists referenced in the question argue that the debris research and summarize the theories you are asked remained within the Earth-Moon system, but that it was to compare.
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Our roadmap points us to paragraph 2 for our research. What are the three theories?
The Official LSAT PrepTest 51 epub
A Strengthen the cataclysmic disintegration of a large body, such as Treat Logic questions in Reading Comprehension just an asteroid or comet, which spread debris throughout as you would treat the comparable question type in the inner solar system. Now will make that claim somewhat more likely to be true.
LHB extended beyond the Earth-Moon system. If explo- Theories 1 and 3 suggest that the LHB was of relative- ration of Mars suggests that there was not an increase ly short duration, but theory Theory 2 suggests that in the intensity of projectiles hitting that planet during what is called the LHB was the end of billions of years the time period the LHB is believed to have occurred, of declining bombardment. A asteroid or comet.
The Official LSAT PrepTest 51
Theory 2 suggests that the LHB was Each of the remaining answer choices is consistent not the result of any cataclysmic event. C is our good answer choice. For the record, none of the theories suggests that there was life on Earth prior to or at the time of the LHB. Passage 3: TV and developing nations C Global primary purpose Thinking of the authors purpose in terms of a verb Questions can get you points on Test Day.
Our roadmap indicates that after the author dismisses This passage represents a common Reading the conclusions of specialists in international commu- Comprehension theme: so-called specialists being nications as lacking a factual basis, she recommends shown to have missed important facts in developing ways that the specialists might approach their their explanations of various phenomena.
After touch- research and thereby come up with some defensible ing lightly on the passage Topic television program- theories. The argumentative tone of the passage ming in developing nations , the author moves quickly makes B and C good candidates for the correct to establish the Scope whether there is evidence that answer. C , however, focuses on the authors recommenda- Paragraph 1 notes the near unanimous view of spe- tions for communications researchers. Since the first cialists in international communications that imported s show that a new approach is needed, and the final television programming overwhelms the culture of s outline the new approach, it is accurate to say that developing nations, and promptly derides that view as the authors purpose is to argue that a particular dis- being polemical and abstract, and based on little or cipline international communications should adopt a no research.
The author then describes the empirical particular fact-based methodology. None of the hypotheses considered by the specialists Paragraph 2 offers a view of televisions role in devel- is deemed correct by the author, and so A is wrong. According to the anthropological munications specialists to be weak, but she holds up study, domestically produced serial dramas are very the methodology of anthropologists as being worthy of popular in developing nations, and can serve a function emulation.
Eliminate D. The primary purpose of a passage must justify pretty well everything that the author chose to include in it. Paragraph 3 suggests that the communications special- E misses the authors detailed recommendations for ists should follow an empirical approach, and provides further research by communications experts.
Paragraph 4 notes that researchers should also con- B Global Organization sider the role of the individual viewer in their model of A vertical scan of answer choices for a question cultural relationships, recognizing viewers differing about the organization of a passage can keep you experiences and responses to television programs.
[PDF.65vo] The Official LSAT PrepTest 51
Our Roadmap might look like this: All five answer choices begin with The author takes 1: Ev doesnt support specialists claim that issue with an assertion. If its first in all of the answer choices, it must be good. The authors criticism of the specialists claims is fol- lowed by examples signaled by keywords For one 3: Communication specialists need empirical example, and For another.
This eliminates A and approach. C from the running. That elimi- tic programs remain popular, serving a role comparable nates E. So contrary to the views of Finally, the author discusses two questions the spe- the specialists, imported programming wont necessarily cialists must address.
That eliminates D and leaves overwhelm domestic programs. Scan the answer choic- B as the good answer. C Inference Continuation The anthropologists study in paragraph two did not A proposed continuation of a passage must fit both provide a model of cultural relationships A , nor did the passage as a whole and the paragraph to which it the author use it show the specialists a new way of is appended. The author implies that unlike the anthropologists, the communications specialists dont currently do empiri- A The author is not concerned with identifying the cal research, so we can rule out C.
The author raises the based on the actual relationship between imported pro- claim that international communications specialists need grams and domestically produced programs, and that to take the diversity of individual viewing habits into accounts for individual responses to programming.
E Inference B The author begins the passage by attacking the dom- inance view for its lack of a factual basiswhether or Clues in the question stem can make an inference not the communications specialists follow the authors question quite manageable. Once again, we are directed to that second paragraph, C In the last two paragraphs of the passage, the specifically, to what the study found out about televi- author details what she means by recommending an sion viewers. According to the study, domestic serial empirical approach for communications researchers.
For the record: lines D The authors observation that communications A and B are s. The author uses this studys specialists almost unanimously support the fact-chal- results to show that viewers wont necessarily prefer lenged dominance theory suggests that the specialists imported programs to local productions. The author never suggests that oral poetry keeps resi- E mischaracterizes the focus of the passageits not dents from watching TV. C distorts the relationship the economic relationships between cultures that the between the two forms of entertainment.