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He even asks Benno to affirm her resemblance to Odette, but his friend sees none. Siegfried delightedly welcomes Odile, and the ball recommences.

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Dances follow for the visiting Princesses, a Pas de deux for Siegfried and Odile, and dancers from many nations. The Prince's mother is delighted that Siegfried is taken with Odile. He announces that he will marry her, and kisses Odile's hand. The Prince's mother and von Rothbart join their hands.

Delibes: Sylvia / Act 1 - No. 7 Scène

The scene then darkens, and an owl cries out, as von Rothbart is revealed as a demon. Odette appears helplessly at a window as white swan, while Odile laughs loudly. Siegfried is horrified, and flings away the hand of his newly betrothed. Clutching his breast, he rushes out of the castle.

Act IV. Back at the lakeside clearing, the Swan maidens await Odette by the lake, unable to understand where their queen has gone. The young swans dance while they wait. Odette eventually returns in despair and tells the others that she has been betrayed, and no hope remains. Against their advice, Odette lingers to spend one last moment with Siegfried, who rushes in.

As a storm rises, Siegfried begs Odette's forgiveness, but she feels powerless to forgive him, and she tries to run away towards the ruins. The Prince catches up with her, grasps her hand and desperately exclaims that she will remain with him forever. Then he takes the crown from her head and throws it into the stormy lake.

An owl flies screeching overhead, holding Odette's crown in its claws. Odette dies in the Prince's arms. The sad last song of the swan is heard. Both lovers are engulfed by the overflowing lake. As the waters subside, swans are seen gliding across the calm surface of the lake. The ballet was commissioned from Tchaikovsky by the Directorate of the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow during the spring of Nikolay Kashkin [6] recalled that the composer was persuaded to write a ballet on a mythical subject from the time of medieval knights, but there is very little reliable information on the process of composition.

Kashkin insisted that the composer began to work on the ballet in the spring and that the first act "was already written by the end of the conservatory examinations", although he mistakenly dates this to the spring of by which time the ballet had been completely orchestrated. In this same letter he mentions that he is tired, adding: "After my exertions of the last few days, I really intend to take a break before returning to Moscow.

I don't want to think about music this coming term" [7]. I worked rather diligently and, apart from the symphony , I wrote in outline two acts of a ballet. I took this work on partly for the money, which I need, and partly because I have long wanted to try my hand at writing this type of music" [8]. It is not possible to ascertain exactly when the sketches were completed and the instrumentation was begun. On the fair copy of the manuscript, after Act I, No. Moscow ". Evidently at this point the rough sketches had already been completed, and the composer had embarked on the instrumentation of the ballet.

Besides composing Lake of the Swans , Tchaikovsky had to attend to a number of other tasks. Besides a ballet, which I am rushing to finish as soon as possible so that I can start on an opera, I have a mass of proofs and—worst of all—a commitment to write some musical articles" [10]. In order to do the job properly, I need two weeks away from here otherwise nothing will get done" [13]. In the same letter he reported that he was going to see Konstantin Shilovsky at Glebovo. I want to get away from all the bustle and clamour of the festivities in Moscow , and to work properly on the ballet, which has to be finished as soon as possible.

Yesterday in the hall of the Theatrical School there was a rehearsal of a few numbers from the first act of this ballet". And below he added: "The whole theatre was delighted with my music" [14]. The author's date at the end of the manuscript reads: "The End!!! Glebovo 10 April ". Evidently the full score of Act I was in the hands of the theatre before Tchaikovsky left on his foreign travels.

In a report from the inspector of music, Yury Gerber, to the Directorate of the Moscow Theatres, we read: "I have the honour of informing the Directorate that on this day I received from Mr Tchaikovsky the remaining 3 acts of the ballet Swan Lake— Mr Tchaikovsky asked me to petition the Directorate for payment of the balance of his fee".

After finishing the ballet, Tchaikovsky was asked to write two supplementary numbers. The first of these pieces is described on the manuscript score as: "Russian Dance for the third act of Lake of the Swans for Mme. Karpakova ". This dance was performed by the principal ballerina in all productions of the ballet during the composer's lifetime. The origins of this Pas de deux are described in Pavel Pchelnikov 's recollections of Tchaikovsky [16]. The former was told the story by the conductor Stepan Ryabov. Without naming the ballerina, Pchelnikov reported that she went to Saint Petersburg to ask the balletmaster Marius Petipa if he could furnish her with a Pas de deux.

The number was set to music by the composer Ludwig Minkus. Not wanting to allow music by others in his ballet, Tchaikovsky wrote his own Pas de deux , preserving the length and divisions of Minkus' piece [17]. The Introduction alone was arranged for piano solo by the composer in or , and this was published with Nikolay Kashkin 's arrangement of the rest of the ballet, which had been made at the request of Tchaikovsky himself.

Would you like to hear it? Albrecht will be there as well" [19]. Nikolay Kashkin wrote about his work on the arrangement in his memoirs: "The principle objective of my arrangement of the ballet was, where possible, to preserve all the main lines in the full score, which was not a particularly easy task.

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When he came to review it, the author simplified a few places of little musical importance, while elsewhere he even added a few grace notes. These additions could not be played on the piano, but, probably imagining the printed orchestral score of the ballet, the composer inserted these details simply because he took it into his head that the music would read better that way" [20]. In Tchaikovsky considered creating a suite from the music to Swan Lake , but it was only seven years after his death that such a suite was finally published, and it is unknown who made the selection of numbers.

There are few surviving accounts by Tchaikovsky concerning his ballet. None of Tchaikovsky's other stage works were subject to such changes and misrepresentation in productions as Swan Lake. Unfortunately, up to the present time it is still not possible to find materials which would show conclusively how the ballet was performed during the composer's lifetime. Some information can be gleaned by comparing posters from the first three productions of the ballet on the stage of the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow.

Judging by the list of dance numbers, Julius Reisinger did not introduce any significant changes to the full score. It is impossible to tell from the titles of the individual dances whether the music was authentic. Nevertheless, bearing in mind the history of the Pas de deux , we might suppose that at the first production the music was performed in accordance with the author's full score, apart from small changes in the order of numbers and, possibly, some cuts evidently a Pas de cinq and Pas de dix dances replaced the Pas de deux discussed above.

When the ballet was revived in , the choreographer Hansen took greater liberties with the score. It is not known whether he introduced new music, but in any case much of the music was cut, including the Pas de six in Act III. It seems that the plot of the ballet was also changed, judging from some annotations to the list of dances performed. Thus, Odette was transformed from a good fairy in the original version into a Queen of the Swans, and the appearance of the magician Rothbart in Act IV was not preserved from the first version.

At the time of the third production, in , Hansen introduced further changes, and added a new dance in Act III for the ballerina Lydia Geiten— Cosmopolitan , to music by Cesar Pugni, which had no relevance whatsoever to the ballet. So don't forget: the second " [23]. This was the first production of a Russian ballet outside its native land, and it was repeated at the National Theatre a further seven times before the end of April [24].

Although the version of the ballet widely promulgated in the 20th century originated after the composer's death, it still played an important part in popularising Tchaikovsky's music and revealing the musical dramaturgy of his first ballet. In the same year, Ivan Vsevolozhsky decided to produce the complete ballet, and asked Modest Tchaikovsky to rewrite the libretto [25].

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I hope that you have managed to leave out the flood in the last scene All this is confusing. I cannot order the scenery until the story is decided upon, but there is plenty of time" [26]. Drigo" [27]. For this production, three piano pieces by Tchaikovsky were inserted into the ballet, namely Nos.

As in the production, and in all subsequent ones, Swan Lake was never performed in its entirety i. Nikolay Kashkin 's piano arrangement of Swan Lake appeared in an edition by Pyotr Jurgenson in February for the premiere. In Jurgenson published the full score of the ballet corresponding to the composer's manuscript score, with an appendix containing the Russian Dance Act III, No.

At this time, the Russian text of the libretto, included in the full score, was translated into the French language [29].

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In the same year, Jurgenson reprinted Nikolay Kashkin 's piano score with the Russian text of the libretto, with an appendix including the Russian Dance [30]. When the full score was published in , Pyotr Jurgenson commissioned a new arrangement of the ballet for two hands, made by Eduard Langer of Riccardo Drigo's version the latter's orchestrations of the Op.


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The title page of the edition of this score carried a note explaining that the pieces inserted into the ballet were Tchaikovsky's own, and had been orchestrated by Drigo. Complete score French Les Cigales Complete Score Lied: Nez au vent Complete Score Pastorale des cochons roses Complete Score Sommation irrespectueuse Complete Score Tes yeux bleus Complete Vocal Score Villanelle des petits canards Faith, F. March of the Pasha's Guard, piano transcription Tabasco Complete score Tabasco Tu me dirais Complete score Plaisirs de Versailles Complete Score Eliza Sgambati 17 Polish Songs, Op.

Complete score Pirame et Tisbe Complete score Coleridge-Taylor, Samuel Eulalie Complete score The Song of Hiawatha, Op. Title pages Russian and French 6 Romances, Op.