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Television and Its Viewers: Cultivation Theory and Research by James Shanahan
Publisher: Cambridge : University Press, Publication: Media International Australia incorporating Culture and Policy, v97 n1 : Publisher: [New York, etc. All rights reserved. Remember me on this computer. Cancel Forgot your password? Cultural Indicators Project firstly focused on the number of violent scenes, their place in society, who did them to whom in television programmes Taylan, It is calculated that children watch approximately Method In this study, the role of television in cultivation has been analysed in respect to the cultivation analysis of Cultural Indicators Project.
Due to the limitations of the study, institutional process analysis and message system analysis are not done. The purpose of the study is to determine the effects of viewing practices of individuals over the age of 60 on their social reality perceptions. Participants are randomly chosen. With the presumption that they have been exposed to effects of television for a longer time and they prefer television most among other mass communication tools, the study is done on individuals aged 60 and over.
Cultivation theory requires participants not to be aware of the fact that value questions reflect the television world. Therefore, participants are asked to answer the questions on the front page of the survey first. After that, they are let to see the questions on the back. In this study, it is presumed that the more people watch television, the more their values will be inclined to the holistic and ideological content of television. For the Cultivation Analysis, a survey of nine questions is made.
These components are: a. Mean world syndrome: We live in a dangerous world. Trust: People cannot be trusted. Opportunism: Most people try to abuse you instead of being honest when they have the opportunity. Selfishness: People care about themselves instead of helping others. Mean world syndrome: It is dangerous to walk alone at night. Security: People do not feel secure. Attack: People can be attacked at any moment. Violence: There are acts of violence among lower class members.
Attack: People are attacked by people they do not know. Five point Likert scale is used in the survey.
Television and its Viewers
Gerbner and his associates differentiate light and heavy viewers based on their viewing period. However, they do not give a time limit between heavy and light. As a result, data is analysed with SPSS programme, and distribution of nine factors related with cultivation is examined. As a result of the test, p: 0. Message system analysis findings of PhD.
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The channels broadcast a total of news stories with violence element or direct violent action in 5 days. Total broadcast time of violence in the news was ,17 minutes in total. The city with the most violence news stories was İstanbul. Police were portrayed as both offender and victim of violence. A total of acts of violence were identified during that time. The number of people involved in violence was People who did not know each other or people from lower classes resorted to violence. Acts of violence took place mostly in Iraq, followed by İstanbul.
Axe, bomb, Molotov cocktail, stone, fist, anti-aircraft weapons were the equipment used in the acts. War images were the most shown images, and the reason for violence was murder. In addition to these, youngsters and men involved in violence the most. He worked on evening news stories of Show, Star and STV channels for five days between 31st July and 4th August , and made 14 evening news stories analyses. The study showed that there were not big differences among three channels in terms of replaying and sustaining continuity of the news stories.
There were many replays, but also continuity in scenes. When the types of events are analysed, Israeli attack, fight, domestic violence, rally, terror, and organised crime are the main topics; events are mostly coded as murder and injury in all three channels. The analysis of gender role in violence showed that in all three channels, compared with women, men have a higher rate of involving in violence. In some news stories, however, the person or people using violence were not identified.
What is more, women were exposed to violence more than men did. According to the findings of the study, the total broadcast time of those 5 channels was hours weekly. Family members watched television for an hour in every five hours.
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Batmaz reached at the following conclusions: Television world does not reflect the real world exactly. The real world is sometimes overrated on television in issues such as violence, politics, etc. This proves that participants were appropriate for cultivation analysis. Besides, the average time when television is on was 8,3 hours. Table 1. Mean world syndrome was tested through asking to what extent do you agree or disagree to the statement that says generally speaking we live in a mean world.
Table 1 revealed that there was a meaningful correlation between heavy television viewing and mean world perception. Table 2. A meaningful correlation between television viewing and trust was found as a result of the second cultivation test Table 2 with the question that asked to what extent do you agree or disagree to the statement that says generally speaking people cannot be trusted.
Table 4. Table 5. The test about the statement that said generally speaking walking alone at night is dangerous did not come out meaningful. Table 6. Table 7.
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The test about the statement that said generally speaking people could be attacked at any moment did not come out meaningful. Table 8. The test about the statement that said generally speaking there are acts of violence among lower class members did not come out meaningful. Table 9. The test about the statement that said generally speaking people are attacked by people they do not know did not come out meaningful. Other components of Cultural Indicators Project, which are Institutional Process Analysis and Message System Analysis have not been conducted due to research limitations.
However, some resources on Message System Analysis have been studied, and three researches done on the subject in Turkey have been summarised. As a result of the research, it has been concluded that, for the participants, time spent with television surpassed time spent with other media, and they prefer television as the first source of information.
Five out of nine cultivation tests came out meaningful. This reveals that television had a role of cultivation on the participants on the basis of these questions. This study does not make generalisations. However, it has put forward the role of television on cultivation. It is possible to do new further studies in the sample of this study or in new samples. Not only television but also new media and social media could be studied.